Motto"Force par l'Unité" - "Power through Unity"
National AnthemOde to Joy
(and also largest city)
|Form of Government||Constitutional Monarchy|
(Head of State)
|Stéphane IV (since 1742)|
|Heir to the Throne||Lukrezia|
(Head of Government)
|Upper House||Counseil de l'Empire|
|Lower House||Corps Législatif|
|Royaume de Chastain||964 AC|
|Empire Castairien / Unification||1198 AC|
|Total Area||835.536 km²|
|Population (Dec. 1760)||62.546.860|
The Castairian Empire (official name: Empire Castairien, pronounciation: [ɑ̃piʁ kasteʁjɛ̃] or short [kastɛʁ]), located in western Esradon, is a country whose territory consists of mainland Castaire and several colonies and overseas regions and territories.
Castaire's metropolitan area spans a combined area of 835.536 km², which, as of Neigouze 1760, has a population of 62.54 million people. Castaire is a constitutional monarchy with its capital in Lucrécy, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Mallais, Lacrosse, Cherbeaux, Grasse, Vermelles and Cousteille.
During the course of many centuries, the lands of what is now considered Castaire began to unite into smaller countries, known famously as the seven duchies, which are integral parts of the Empire. In 1000 AC, an ancestor of the ruling Sacrecouronne family founded the Kingdom of Chastain. 200 years later, Castorian I founded the Empire Castairien out of Chastain, Gardelegen and Montataire. The following centuries were characterized by wars against the remaining duchies as well as inner conflicts such as the Poison Plot and religious problems. Despite the difficulties of the period, the Empire maintained and enlarged their economical activities and became an important trade power. Since the 17th century, Castaire's aspirations relocated to the New World, where it is developing a colonial realm.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Trivia
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Antiquity (6th century BC - 5th century AC)
Early Middle Ages (5th century - 10th century)
- before 840
Before Charlain came to power and founded the Kingdom of Chastaine, the lands of nowadays Castaire were merely organized into several tribes who struggled for the power in the region. One of the lesser of them was the tribe of Chastain, settling in the central northern area, around the location of nowadays Lucrécy. They were a small tribe, but their homesteads location at the Violaine river granted them control over most of the rivers flow. They used their influence to forge alliances with the surrounding tribes, mostly to protect each other against the invading northern cantorian tribes. When in 840 Charlain came to power, the history would change soon.
- Charlain (840 - 888)
The very first phase of castairien integration started with Charlains succession to the tribal head of the Chastain tribe. Within his 48 years of reign, he reformed the former tribes into a small, but powerful kingdom in northern Castaire. In 858 his vision of a united northern country came true, he founded the Kingdom of Chastaine, the center and source of imperial power until today.
- Charlois (888 - 900)
- Charlain II (900 - 920)
- Cerisón (920 - 953)
- Charlois II (953 - 977)
- Cartelian (977 - 994)
Late Medieval Period (10th century - 15th century)
- Cerisón II (994 - 1013)
- Charlain III (1013 - 1018)
- Casére (1018 - 1043)
- Cerisón III (1043 - 1082)
- Casére II (1082 - 1108)
- Césaire (1108 - 1132)
- Céolestin (1132 - 1159)
- Constant (1159 - 1180)
- Caestoire (1180 - 1214)
Caestoires coronation of Roi de Chastaine followed his fathers death in 1180. 18 years of peaceful and wealthy time followed the coronation until 1198. In this year, Caestoire and his fellows made the decision to form an empire composed of Chastaine, Gardelegen and Merillon.
As the counts Sylvain de la Marvours (Merillon) and Marius Vermontres (Gardelegen) were long-time friends of Caestoire, their alliance had a stronger foundation than just plain politics. Together they fought the neighbouring realm of Cantoras in several pyrrhic wars and thus concluded a defensive alliance. Furthermore, Caestoire married Marius daughter, Lucrécria, strengthening the bonds between the families.
With the unification of Chastaine, Gardelegen, and Merillon, staging on 18th June of 1198, Castaire was promoted to an Empire, binding the title of the actual leader as Empereur de Castaire to the current ruler of Chastain, thus rendering Chastaines successive line the same as of the Empire. In regards of their loyal fellowship, Caestoire promoted Marius to Grand Duc du Gardelegen and Sylvian to Duc du Merillon. Caestoire invited his fellows to join his Grand Conseil, the primary governing body that had existed for several centuries.
Since 1206, the newly composed lands experienced an extraordinary economic advancement and a long time of peace and welfare. Many new cities and villages were established throughout the land and the trade between them and the old cities saved the prosperity of the people. They began to form organisations like the Miltmore Trading Guild to achieve even more profit.
- Césaire II (1214 - 1229)
Césaire II was the second child and first son of Castorian and Lucrécia. He ascended the throne after his fathers death in 1214 and became one of the most aspiring Empereurs of Castaire. His rule saw the preparation of the accession of both Exermont and Keravel, two important counties bordering Castaire, bearing immense amounts of resources and thus being crucial for the further economic advance of Castaire.
In 1215, several trade agreements were negotiated between Castaire, Exermont and Keravel, as well as non-aggression pacts. For Castaire, an aspiring nation further relying on trade, especially the southern harbours of Keravel were of interest as well as the rich iron ore deposits in Exermont. Thus the agreements saw the trade of iron ore for military support and defense. In 1224, a treaty was concluded with Exermont making it a de facto part of the Empire, but retaining its own governmental bureaus.
- Césaire III (1229 - 1239)
- Césaire IV (1239 - 1250)
- Céolin (1250 - 1256)
Exermont eventually joined the Empire in 1253 following a severe diplomatic incident. Arch Prelate Herifred von Coltz invaded Exermont in order to annex its rich ore deposits, but was eventually stopped by the Armée Impériale, which was called into action by the government of Exermont. Following that, Exermont joined the Empire, but Keravel remained suspicious, as their primary trade interests were not inflicted.
- Corand (1256 - 1276)
In 1263, the male line of the de Landivisiau family perished, and Césaires brother, Clement, who was married to Charlotte de Landivisiau, the last offspring of that family, became co-regent.
- Constant II (1276 - 1293)
Constant II followed his father and ascended to the throne in 1276. He was married to Claire Grennequis, the heiress of the Duché du Keravel. Eventually, Keravel joined the Empire de Castaire following diplomatic actions and a dowry treaty in 1282.
- Corand II (1293 - 1323)
In 1306, the political situation regarding the southern border became highly dangerous as another branch of the Alborañ family of Escaloña came to succeed in Tremal, an area between the Castairien and Escaloñian borders. As it was nearly impossible for the Empire to defend its borders with Tremal, and the Escaloñian diplomacy even threatening was thoughts of further annexations, Stéphane declared war in November 1306 ans sent his armies to Tremal. Known as the Guerre d'Hiver (Winter's War), Castaire obtained the duchy of Tremal, renamed it to Trimouille and made it a formal part of its Empire. The later ducal family Troucoise, namely its head, Atticus Troucoise, was engaged in the conflict and acted as the Empereur's personal field marshal, commanding the soldiers. Therefor, he was honoured with the the title of Duc du Trimouille.
- Constant III (1323 - 1340)
One of the first situations the new Empereur was confronted with was the uprising in Landivisiau, whose aim was to overthrow the imperial rule and become independent again. The people of Landivisiau were mainly split into two parties, the reformists and the independents. Louen Lesmoines, head of the reformists, wanted to stay in the Empire as Landivisiaus position would be quite dangerous without the support of Castaire. Nonetheless, he suggested several reforms of the governing system, mainly granting the duchies more autonomy from The Crown. The uprising was quelled by the imperial troops, but Constant decided to give Landivisiau its autonomy back and made Lesmoines Duc du Landivisiau, reassuring the agreement of the Landivisian people.
- Constant IV (1340 - 1368)
The last of the current duchies, Lanthenas, joined the Empire officially in 1342, following several maritime raids of its harbours by the Escaloñian fleets. Thus, the Empire reached its current number of constituent states with the last treaty in 1342.
- Céolin II (1368 - 1392)
- Césaire V (1392 - 1424)
- Céolestin II (1424 - 1451)
- Céolestin III (1451 - 1474)
At this time, the urgent need for a new capital arose. Each of the six former duchies and Chastaine of course had their own capitals, but there was no representative city which could become the capital. Céolestin assigned a team of architects to plan a new city at the fields near the river Violaine. This city got the name of the first Empereurs wife, Impératrice Lucrécia, in a slightly adapted version, "Lucrécy". The architects started planning in 1453 and the construction of the first streets was envisaged for Neigouze 1455. This, however, wasn't achieved, as the cold winter made any building tasks nearly impossible, so construction finally started in spring 1456. In the following years, Lucrécy developed into a prosperous city and attracted more and more settlers to soon become the most populous city of the Empire.
- Céolestin IV (1474 - 1485)
Empereur Céolestin IV was the actual architect of Lucrécy, as the construction of the current cityscape started under his name. He loved architecture and consulted several great architects. Célestin had many helpful meetings in which some of the city's most important buildings were mainly planned, like the old theatre, the Cathedral of the Ten Angels, the town hall, and the courtyard. No wars occurred during his reign. His rule was commonly known as the Peaceful Era, which ended right under the order of his son.
Early Modern Period (since 15th century)
- Céolestin V (1485 - 1503)
Céolestin V used his power mainly for warfare and conquered various smaller border territories to feed the Empire. Therefor, he got many imperialistic accusations, which were later fundamentally declared in the Céolestine Doctrine, a document which should lead the policy of the Empire for the next 200 years. It consisted of several state theoretic arguments which were important for the persistence of the realm in the eyes of the leading politicians. It declared that only war can be used to contain hostile ambitions of surrounding nations, so it was used as justification for all latter wars fought by the Empire.
As Céolins son, the Prince Impériale, died 5 years before his father, he proclaimed his nephew to be the next Empereur when he is adult. In consequence, the next Empereur was Céolin III, son of Céolestins brother Claude and his wife Claire.
When Céolestin V died in 1503, he proclaimed that his nephew, Claudes son, will become Empereur when he is 15 years old. At the age of 8 years, Céolin became Empereur. His father Claude took over the government business and reigned for his minor son until 1510, when he was coronated at the age of 15. The 7 years between his proclamation and the actual coronation and acquisition of his governance were a disturbing time for the people of Castaire. Regent Imperial Claude was a completely unable ruler and maneuvered Castaire into several wars, also with its constituent state Gardelegen. In the course of war, after the imperial regiments passed the border without any declaration of war, Gardelegen separated from the Empire and struck back, defeating a whole army of imperial soldiers. The military staff in Lucrécy was shocked about this progression and soon looked for a possibility to make peace with Gardelegen. Gardelegen accepted the peace petition only under the condition that the Regent Imperial has to be unseated. The government followed this condition and imprisoned the father of the Emperor in 1508. Until 1510, a council of 10 important nobleman controlled the fate of the Empire. This was the birth of the Counseil de l'Empire, a board to support the Empereur in his governmental tasks.
- Corand III (1540 - 1559)
- Céolestin VI (1559 - 1580)
- Stéphane (1580 - 1604)
- Stéphane II (1604 - 1616)
- Seraphin (1616 - 1642)
- Stéphane III (1642 - 1678)
Stéphane III, le Éloigné, became Empereur in Fleurcin 1642. While his predecessors ambition were mainly focused on internal affairs, Stéphane became far more interested in the New World and bolstered the foundation of permanent settlements in eastern Seraphia. Many of the settlers dreamed of a better life in the oversea territories, but found themselves confronted with then unexpected threats like unknown diseases and different soil making normal farming with their known crops nearly impossible. They got help both by the government, which sent food with large convoys and the native Seraphians, who taught them to farm corn, a crop completely unknown in Esradon back then. The foundation of Nouvelle Castaire marked an important point for the development of the castairien overseas empire. Starting with a mere 13 colonies, they quickly expanded in the uncontested territory and became the most populous colony in Seraphia just within 20 years. Several other colonial expeditions led to the foundation of La Célestiane and the acquiration of the Grandes et Petites Antaries.
The coronation of Nathanaël II marked another point of change in the history of Castaire. He was a very militaristic Empereur, always demonstrating the overwhelming power of the Castairian Military. His reign was represented by many wars, especially the Grand War Against Cantoras which ended victorious for the Empire. This era ended with the death of Nathanaël on Germois 21st 1742.
- Stéphane IV (since 1742)
Following his fathers death, Steve was coronated on Germois 22nd 1742 . His reigning period comprised a long peaceful time and thus an extraordinary increase of wealth and economic power, the lands and oversea territories flourished in the past 15 years, following the many reforms of Stéphane and Belle. Since the cantorian throne became vacant in Fleurcin 1757, nearly all esradonian great powers are engaged in the War of the Cantorian Succession, with Castaire supporting princess Lukrezias rightful claim.
Location and borders
The majority of Castaires territory and population is situated in western Esradon. It is bordered by the Mer du Nord in the north, the Archonic Ocean in the west and the ... in the south/southeast. It land borders consists of Cantoras in the north, several Reikenlandian territories in the east and Escaloña in the south and southwest.
- Castaire is situated between the western oceanic and the eastern continental climate in a zone of temperate climate, with warm summers and mild winters. The eastern parts have a more continental climate, so the winters there can be very cold and the summers very warm.
- The dominating ecoregion of Castaire are forests, which cover around a third of the total area (31.9%). The rest is either covered by arable land (50.8%) or consistent pastures (11.8%). Only 5.5% consists of cities, settlements or streets. The forests consists of mainly deciduous trees like oaks and beeches, while in the mountain regions there are more spruce and fir trees.
The Empire Castairien is a federal state under a constitutional monarchy. The Empereur as monarch is the head of state of the Empire. The monarch has absolute power, but almost never even uses a bit of it and gave the complete control to the government. The Constitution Castairien is codified, but often supplemented by imperial patents or parliamentary decisions. There is no evident difference between ordinary statutes and constitutional law, so the Parlement can perform constitutional reforms by simply passing new acts, and thus has the power to change or abolish almost any part of law. Nonetheless, there is no possibility to pass laws that future Parlements cannot change.
Main article: Government of Castaire
The EC is governed parliamentarily, with the Parlement Impérial subdivided into two chambers, the elected Corps Législatif and the appointed Conseil de l'Empire. All bills passed are given Assentiment Impérial before becoming law. The position of Chancelier, the EC's head of government, belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the Corps Législatif; this person is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the most seats in that chamber. The Chancelier chooses a cabinet of designed ministers to lead the government. It's members are formally appointed by the monarch and act at His will. By convention, the monarch respects the political decisions of the Chancelier, but has the power to intervene.
- The most important collection of laws is the Constitution Castairien, which was concluded in 1450 AC as the base of the freshly unified empire. It explains the way the Empire works.
- The rights of any inhabitant of Castaire are protected by the Grand Rule Book, the basic law written by Prince Hakno the Great, an important statesman of the Empire. The law supervision is the task of the Imperial Supreme Court (located in Lucrécy) and the smaller courts in every city, called the Peoples Court.
- Castaire consists of some smaller, former independent countries unified in 1200 AC by Empereur Castorian I. The most important and also the biggest part is of course Chastain itself, with its capital Lucrécy. Besides Chastain, several duchies were unified into the Empire in 1200 AC. These also shape the administrative regions of the EC.
| ||Exermont||Côte d'Argent||Vornay|
| ||Lanthenas||Massif Impérial||Chavot|
| ||Keravel||Côte Saphire||Cousteille|
| ||Landivisiau||Pointe Nord||Satillieu|
- The foreign politics of the Empire are related to the current Empereur. Empereur Nathanaël II for instance, had a very aggressive policy of expansion while Castorian I and Steve I are more peaceful statesmen. Today, Castaire isn't integrated into any war and has amicable relations to its neighbors.
- The former nemesis of Castaire is now one of their most important trade partners. In the past, several wars were fought between those two great powers, but eventually and after the marriage of Cantorian princess Belle with Steve, the relations drastically improved.
- The most important rival of the Empire borders Castaire in the south, the actual boundary line being a constant problem and often ending in armed conflicts. Escaloña has a giant colonial realm, especially in Borcalia, the southern continent of the "New World", and thus is protected by an enourmous fleet nearly equivalent to the imperial naval power.
- There are several dynastical connections to Rothenia, thus the relations especially to the Tsar are pretty amicable. As Rothenias mainland consists mainly of tundra, Castaire often sends food to support the people, thus boosting the relations even further.
- A small state at the northern coast of Reikenland, this nation strives to find its place amongst the worlds great powers. As Prussien is the rival to Osterlitz, Castaire supports it to create a counterweight to the Lichtenau realm. Though Prussien has ambitions to unite Reikenland and form a new empire, this is neither anticipated nor will be tolerated by Castaire, because this would endanger its own hegemonial position.
- A rather small nation located directly between Prussien and Osterlitz, it needs a partner to support it to not become overwhelmed by its aspiring neighbours. This was found in Castaire, whose imperialty have amicable relations to the ruling family of Česky-Mirava.
- A former unimportant nation, which has become part of the international stage through the acquiration of spacious territories in the "New World" and thus became a colonial power. Prince Florian is engaged to its crown princess, Estelle Christina Marie.
- An important archduchy in the southern part of Reikenland, Osterlitz is (beneath Escaloña) the second opponent to Castaire, aspiring in gaining the full control of whole Reikenland and (like Prussien) trying to unify it to a powerful counterweight to the Empire in its west.
- As a colonial power, Portamundo mainly focuses on its overseas possessions and thus is not part of any treaty with Castaire, though it has very good relation to its "big brother" Escaloña, thus being a possible opponent in any future war.
- Ruling the southern part of Esradon, Ventalicci is a powerful kingdom and often allied to Osterlitz when they tried to end the Castairien hegemony. Furthermore, Castaire has several claims (through heirage) to Ventaliccis northern territories like Geneve and Luccio.
- The military of Castaire, commonly known as Forces Armées Impériales, is split into 4 parts, the Armée Impériale, the Marine Impériale, the Armée de l'air Impériale and the Garde Impériale.
- Main article: Armée Impériale
- The Armée Impériale is the biggest part of the Castairian Military, as it consists of 750.000 soldiers protecting the Empire from any enemies. The most known appearance of the army was the war against Cantoras 1738 - 1742, where they defeated the Cantorian army. They are clothed into red uniforms, so they are often called the "imperial redcoats".
- Main article: Marine Impériale
- The Marine Impériale is the naval wing of the Castairian Military, consisting of 100.000 soldiers, sailors and also supporting troops. This number includes also the Marine Soldiers. While the sailors are clothed in blue uniforms, their officers got a dark blue, and the Marine Soldiers are wearing red uniforms as their terrestrial counterparts.
Armée De L'Air Impériale
- Main article: Armée De L'Air Impériale
- The Armée de L'Air is a relatively new part of the Military, founded just 74 years ago. There are 50.000 men engaged in the airforce. With more than 90 airships and several smaller vessels it is the strongest airforce in the world. Some of their airships can float by the help of magic whilst others have newly invented steam engines to create the power needed to fly.
Division des Gardes
- Main article: Division des Gardes
- The Guards Division comprises the most elite units of the Armed Forces, consisting of 7 500 soldiers protecting the Emperor and his family. The members are the best trained men of the whole Empire and for sure able to prevent any attempted assassination on the Imperial Family. They wear the normal red uniforms of the Empire, but with golden epaulettes, golden sashes instead of the normal white ones and a golden border at their tricornes.
The Castairian Empire is a highly innovative and advanced country, as it makes use of steam power and electricity. Science and Research are important topics for the government, and both are encouraged by the monarchy as they provide useful gadgets for everydays life. Castaire has the largest and most powerful national economy of the world, caused by highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock and a non-existant level of corruption. The welfare and prosperity of the Empire is mainly based on their superior labour efficiency and high moral.
In manners of dependence, Castaire is completely autarc and produces everything by themselves.
Important labour branches are (gold-)smithery, the production of magical items and trade with other nations, as Castaire is the export nation #1.
- Most of the Castairian streets are cobbled and paved, and several rivers flow through the country, enabling ship traffic. Lucrécy is the most important hub for both traffic and trade, as it accommodates both the Imperial Airport and a big harbor, from where most of the trade of Castaire is processed.
- The processing of gold and usage of gems found in Liramond became one of the most lucrative sources of income for the Empire. The goldsmithery provides the most income (in form of taxes) for the state and is thus one of the reasons for the prosperity of Castaire.
- Some goldsmiths provide magical artifacts aswell, as they are supported by the magicians in the fabrication of them. Those magical artifacts are able to perform various tasks, for instance protecting the owner from illnesses or cleaning a room. More mighty artifacts are kept in the vaults of Palais Castaire as they could cause problems amongst the people. The most important artifact, the so called Glaciem Scepter, is the scepter worn by the Emperor of Castaire. Its actual amount of power is only known by the archmages and the Imperial Family.
- The most people of Castaire are followers of Cadriel, the Heavenly Lord. There exist some other religions, but they are minor related to the overwhelming member figure of the Cadrielistic Church, which is 95% of the overall population.
- The spoken language of Castaire is Castairian, as well as it is the official language of the Empire.
- The level of education in Castaire is the highest in the world. Everyone in the Empire at least is able to read, write and compute simple tasks. The normal way of education is the attending in a school, which lasts from the age of 6 to the age of 16, so the young inhabitants get 10 years of education. After the successful exams at the end, they are able to either visit the Magician Academy or the University. Both possibilities are an excellent choose, while the magically gifted pupils should visit the Magician Academy of course, which is merely focused on magic than on the normal subjects. The University graduation will allow the students to take absolutely any job, if they successfully finished their exams.
- The health system in Castaire is built upon a base structure of many hospitals, at least one in every city. In those hospitals, the doctors are using "normal" pharmacy products as well as magically infused talismans to heal the people. Because the health system is sponsored by the government, every inhabitant is able to afford a doctor in worse cases.
- Magic is very important in Castaire, since the most people rely on it. The magicians sell everyday items, usable for nearly any purpose. The magicians are organized in the Magicians Guild, whichs headquarter is the Magician Academy. The guild owns at least one building in every city, where people can ask for assistance by the magicians. They are rewarded with money by the satisfied people.
- In past times, the magicians were a great support for the Empereur as he ruled alone without a parliament, but since the parliaments establishment, the power of them decreased and they lost their influence on the politics of the Empire. Today, the magicians are represented with some seats in the parliament, where they are a minority, and the Empereurs advisor is one of the members of the high council of the magicians order.
The most buildings in Castaire were built in the style of historism and classicism. Some repeating colors are red and yellow, which are often used in representative buildings. Those representative buildings, e.g. Palais Castaire and the Townhall of Lucrécy were built in the style of Supreme Imperial, which is marked by an excessive usage of either quartz and marble or other very expensive materials like gold or lapis lazuli. Also those buildings are designed to have extraordinary high windows to light up the inner rooms.
Literature and Philosophy
As Castaire is known worldwide as a nation of intellectual people, its literature and philosophy is also very important for the welfare and knowledge of the Empire, as the authors and philosophers provide many books for the people to read.
Fashion and Design
Castaires festive days are the most cadrielistic ones as well as some very own and special ones.
Castaires most prevalent holiday is the Jour de l'Unité, marked by the coronation of Castorian as the first sovereign ruler and Empereur de Castaire on Rosix 18 1198. This day is celebrated every year by grand parades, large festivities and feasts and is crowned by a ceremonial coronation and speech of the ruling Empereur in the evening, staging in Sacre-Cœur de Lucrécy. This is the only national holiday with a firm date, the others may vary.
Anniversaire de l'Empereur or Emperor's Birthday is the second national holiday of Castaire and is celebrated at the birthday of the current Empereur. It is up to the Monarch if other birthdays of His family might be celebrated in a similar manner, but it is quite common to have the birthday of the Prince(sse) Impérial(e) celebrated as well, but in a less lavish manner. Breathtaking parades throughout this day, free food and drink as well as large gatherings are common.
The most recently added holiday is known as Mariage des Nations and marks the day when Steve married Belle. As this date coincides to be her birthday as well, and Steves birthday being exactly one week earlier, this week is normally a completely week off. The Cantorians also celebrate this day, but rather in commemoration of Belle.
- Castaire and it's cultural background were mainly inspired by real world France. Many things bear french names, but there are influences from other cultural spheres as well, e.g. the army uniform and imperial colour Red from England/Britain.
- The naming of Castaire started with Alcastaire as first idea, then changed to Belcastaire and finally got rid of the prefixes and remained Castaire.
- Foundation by Chiralien, Duc du Favorite
- Castaire, Gardelegen and Montataire were united, with Castorian becoming Empereur
- Overseas territories, regions and colonies not included